Logic Design for Array-Based Circuits
Copyright © 1996, 2001, 2002 Donnamaie E. White
Faults and Fault Detection
Last Edit July 22, 2001
The problem is to construct a complete and minimal test set such that any single fault condition is detected, provided that masking has not covered the effects.
During research into applications of Svoboda's Boolean Analyzer, a method of deriving a Minimal Test Sequence was discovered. It was, at that time, applied to combinatorial circuits and indicated that it could probably be applied to sequential circuits [Svoboda, White, 1974]. Since that time, the method for deriving test sequences for sequential circuits has been developed.
The first step in developing a Minimal Test Sequence is the derivation of the circuit equations. These have been found to be implementation-independent. They may be derived on a gate by gate basis from a particular implementation, but the resulting sequence will always be the same as that derived for a minimized implementation of the circuit. Internal nets (intermediate variables) are not required to be in the final equations. If intermediate variables are to be carried through, they are treated as unknowns
Primary output variables are treated as unknowns. Primary input variables are the knowns.
A primary input is an input that is connected to an external source. A primary output is an output going to an external sink or connection. After all equations for all gates are listed for a circuit, form the Existence Function by solving the equation:
( F = G ) <==> ( y = 1 )
where y is the output. Equations of the form F = G can be rewritten as:( F G ' + F ' G = 0 ) <==> ( y = 0 )
where F G ' + F ' G = 0expresses the validity requirements for the complement functions.
The Existence Function contains all behavior properties of the circuit. Fault testing problems are solved by adding equations to the system equations or by processing the Existence Function after it is derived.