Books by Ukeiley [ 1993], Chan [ 1994], and Trimberger [ 1994] are dedicated to FPGAs and their uses. The International Workshop on Field-Programmable Logic and Applications describes the latest developments and applications of FPGAs [Grünbacher and Hartenstein, 1992; Hartenstein and Servit, 1994; Moore and Luk, 1995; Hartenstein and Glesner, 1996]. Many of the FPGA vendors have Web sites that include white papers and technical documentation. The annual IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM, ISSN 0163-1918, TK 7801.I53) is a forum for presenting new device and IC technology including new FPGA programming technologies. The IEEE Transaction on Electron Devices (ISSN 0018-9383) is the archival source for developments in device technology.
There is a large U.S. patent literature on FPGAs (see Table 4.9 ). Sometimes the FPGA vendors hide the basic low-level structures from the user to simplify their description or to prevent the competition from understanding their secrets. Patents have to explain the details of operation (otherwise they will not be awarded or cannot be enforced), so sometimes it can be useful to at least know where to look. One place to start is the front or back of the data book, which often contains a list of the manufacturer’s patents.